As a PhD candidate in the Technology and Social Behavior program, a joint program in Computer Science and Communication at Northwestern University, my research interests lie at the intersection of Human-Computer Interaction and Machine Learning. Currently, my work highlights mobile context-aware technologies for self-tracking and mHealth as a domain where research illuminating the user experience of the technology as well its potential for positive health behavior change can be better incorporated into the design and evaluation of the underlying machine learning algorithms. As a 2014 Data Science For Social Good Fellow, it became clear to me that there is still a lot we can research about the practical design and application of machine learning algorithms and the systems we embed them in. Given the extreme extent to which these systems learn from, encode, predict, and mediate human behavior, I direct my research to analyzing and designing such systems from both the human and computational perspective, a discipline that is now being called Human-Centered Machine Learning.
Machine learning algorithms have become increasingly prevalent in many aspects of our life. At home, we are increasingly interacting with intelligent systems that use machine learning to infer what we want from what we say and at work many of us (Medical Doctors, Researchers, Marketing and Business Analysts) depend on machine learning to power software for analysis. Two fields of research help with the design and evaluation of intelligent technologies: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) which helps us understand how people experience the technology and Machine Learning (ML) which helps us to understand how learning algorithms can help derive the knowledge necessary for powering these systems. Human-Centered Machine Learning (HCML) is a new research topic which aims to combine methods of design and evaluation from ML and HCI to understand how intelligent systems can best improve our lives and empower us to be more knowledgable, creative, and productive.
For more information on the topic, please see the course curriculum I have put together on Github. If you have suggestions for other topics, papers, etc. that should be included feel free to email me or submit a pull request.
A month or so ago, @sadiewit invited me to talk about my research at the intersection of HCI and AI on her podcast, @PhDrinking. Check it out to hear some thoughts on what still makes AI and Machine Learning a really challenging problem https://t.co/quhoM9MZJt— Scott Allen Cambo (@SkotBotCambo) May 29, 2018
A very common way in which people interact with machine learned models is through devices and mobile apps designed to track physical activities like sitting, standing, running, walking, and bicycling. However, the models embedded in consumer activity tracking systems do not typically adapt to an individual users needs and only recently have they begun to allow users to directly correct the model itself. This research project aims to understand how activity trackers can be designed to help users cultivate more accurate models (or more precisely, models that err in ways they are most comfortable with) with the goal of creating a more personalized health tracking experience. We aim to do this in two ways :
Machine Teaching (MT) has been proposed as a new field of ML research and a likely future job position. MT focuses on the task and the art of providing sources of data, labels, features, and human evaluation of machine learned models by the user or engineer. However, each “machine teacher” brings their own biases and value systems in judging what information is appropriate and helpful for the learner and what kinds of errors are acceptable (or unacceptable) for the learner. Cooperative Machine Teaching (name subject to change) aims to understand how we design systems which resolve input from multiple teachers to create models which best represent the values and biases of the community which will be most affected by their decisions.
This project is a course that I am developing to help students put the research and application of Human-Computer Interaction and Machine Learning in context with each other. The synopsis: By definition, Machine Learning provides software with a way to learn something that it was not explicitly programmed for. In practice, Machine Learning is often used to allow people to learn something they might not have been able to do otherwise (e.g. infer relationships from large scale high-dimensional data at potentially high speed) and allow computers to learn something that humans learn naturally (e.g.: speaking, hearing, seeing). These two broad application areas of Machine Learning not only have a large impact on human behavior, their success often depends on a nuanced understanding of human behavior and how people interact with technology (i.e.: sociotechnical behavior). Students of the Human-Centered Machine Learning course will help form a new way of understanding and practicing the application of machine learning through a series of readings, discussions, and a final project.
This app is being developed as an educational tool for the Computing Everywhere series at Northwestern University which aims to help students in communication studies understand how subjectivity can deliberately or accidentally be encoded in algorithms that serve cultural content such the music recommenders used by Spotify or Pandora.
In my first lab rotation as a new student in the Technology and Social Behavior program, I worked with the Stephen Schueller and David Mohr at the Center for Behavioral Intervention Technology on a project aiming to understand how mobile phone sensor data may be used with ecological momentary assessment data to build models of various mental health states using machine learning. Unfortunately, this project did not yield any feasible models, but it was a great learning project and a joy to work with the excellent folks at CBITs. I successfully defended my computer science qualifying exam to Darren Gergle, Stephen Schueller, and Doug Downey with a write-up and presentation of the findings from this work.
In any crowd sourcing application, it is important to consider what about the design of the app motivates the user to participate. In my second lab rotation, I worked with Haoqi Zhang in the Delta Lab on a project aiming to understand how citizen science might “crowd sense” the natural world by automatically leveraging opportunities presented in habit building applications such as Zombies Run! and Headspace.
In the summer of 2016, Daniel Avrahami and Matt Lee were kind of to invite me to intern at FXPal for the summer where we worked to understand how to design mobile phone-based activities which appropriately balance well-being with productivity. What we came up with was BreakSense, a mobile phone application that uses iBeacon technology to detect when users have left their workstation and prompt them to do a quick and fun game that seamlessly integrates with most breaks to add a few steps while leaving the user refreshed and mentally prepared to return to work.